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Quantum Information/ Computation
Quantum computation allows exponential speedup over classical computation for certain algorithms. In order to achieve this feat, a quantum computer exploits the fact that quantum bits (qubits) have a larger set of possible states than classical bits.
Classical bits vs Quantum Bits (Qubits)
Quantum Information Processing Requirements
The following requirements must be met for quantum computation [D. DiVicenzo; arXiv:quant-ph/0002077 ]: